The population of the European wood bison has risen to the extent that it is no longer seen as “Vulnerable” according to the global authority on conservation, the IUCN, in their latest Red List update.
Present in the Netherlands, Poland, Belarus, Russia, the Baltics, Ukraine, Bulgaria, and Romania, across the 47 free-ranging herds, the bison totals 6,200 individuals.
The result of large-scale conservation strategies, it’s an example of what can be accomplished with large herbivores when one gives them time, space, and safety. A century ago, only 50 European bison remained on Earth, and they were mostly confined to breeding sanctuaries.
In Russia, which is a major habitat for European bison, for 11 years, the national WWF-chapter has been introducing genetically distinct wood bison in the Caucuses Mountains, and their herds total 143 in three different groups, though there could easily be thousands of them in the North Caucuses—a goal WWF-Russia is eager to achieve.
Global Director of IUCN’s Biodiversity Conservation Group, Dr. Jane Smart, in a statement said that:
The conservation successes in today’s Red List update provide living proof that the world can set, and meet, ambitious biodiversity targets.Dr. Jane Smart
Eight of the 47 bison herds are genetically viable for long-term survival, so scientists need to rotate animals in and out of herds in order to ensure healthy genetic lineages. Establishing greater numbers of separate herds will also help prevent irreparable loss due to things like disease or natural disasters.
This led to the creation of a project called “Wilder Blean” where Blean Woods in Kent, England, will receive Dutch and Polish bison to create the first wild herd on the island for 6,000 years.
Managers of wildlife, as well as English conservationists are interested in the effects bison have on the landscape. As large grazing herbivores, frequent foraging, scuffing, digging, they do on the forest floor has been hypothesized as having tremendous revitalizing effects on the ecosystem.
Bison kill weak or dead trees by eating their bark or rubbing against them to remove their thick winter fur. This turns the tree into food and habitat for insects, which in turn provide food for birds. The resulting pocket of sunlight allows new plants to grow, replenishing the woodland.
In this way they act like forestry experts, and the Kent Wildlife Trust hopes that this “keystone” species will prop up declining populations of plants, birds, insects, and mammals by way of their unique habits.